Key Experiments That Substantiate Cold
Compiled by Eugene F. Mallove, Sc. D., Editor-in-Chief
Infinite Energy Magazine
Below are listed select technical papers that include
substantive data providing documentation of the existence of "Cold
Fusion." Abstracts or excerpts from these documents are provided
so that the researcher may have a sense of the subject and content
of the paper. We strongly recommend returning to the original documents
to gain a fuller understanding of the validating work that has been
been done in this field. For more information on current research,
data, and published papers relating to this field, we also highly
to Infinite Energy magazine.
Several thousand technical papers now exist in the
area that has become known as "cold fusion" and "low-energy nuclear
reactions" (LENR), or "chemically assisted nuclear reactions" (CANR).
The papers that are highlighted here are those that might be considered
the "Select 34" publications that report experimental results.
The salient conclusions of each study are abstracted. These experimental
results, taken from a much larger body, make what we consider to
be an irrefutable case for the reality of cold fusion phenomena.
Note well: This selection is not intended to detract from
the very high value of many, many other quality papers that have
been published in the field. Furthermore, this selection does not
include the large number of papers that discuss the theoretical
foundations of cold fusion phenomena. (The order of paper presentation
is somewhat arbitrary. It is designed to give a feel for the kinds
of results and the variety of institutions reporting them.)
Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear
Materials Technology Division
"Electrolytic Tritium Production," by Edmund Storms
and Carol Talcott, Fusion Technology, Vol. 17, July 1990,
Fifty-three electrolytic cells of various configurations
and electrode compositions were examined for tritium production.
Significant tritium was found in 11 cells at levels between 1.5
and 80 times the starting concentration after enrichment corrections
Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear
Materials Technology Division
"Review of Experimental Observations About the Cold
Fusion Effect," by Edmund Storms, Fusion Technology, Vol.20,
December 1991, pp. 433-477.
The experimental literature describing the cold fusion
phenomenon is reviewed. The number and variety of careful experimental
measurements of heat, tritium, neutron, and helium production strongly
support the occurrence of nuclear reactions in a metal lattice near
room temperature, as proposed by Pons and Fleischmann, and independently
SRI International and Electric
Power Research Institute
"Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes
in Deuterated Metals," M.C.H. McKubre, et al., EPRI TR-104195, Research
Project 3170-01, Final Report, August 1994, 128 pages, plus 342
pages on microfiche.
This work confirms the claims of Fleischmann, Pons,
and Hawkins of the production of excess heat in deuterium-loaded
palladium cathodes at levels too large for chemical transformation...
Although nuclear reaction products commensurate with the excess
heat have not yet been observed, small but definite evidence of
nuclear reactions have been detected at levels some 40 orders of
magnitude greater than predicted by conventional nuclear theory.
SRI International and Electric
Power Research Institute
"Isothermal flow calorimetric investigations of the
D/Pd and H/Pd systems," M.C.H. McKubre, S. Crouch-Baker, R.C. Rocha-Filho,
S.I. Smedley, F.L. Tanzella, T.O. Passell, and J. Santucci, Journal
of Electroanaytical Chemistry, 368, 1994, pp.55-66.
...the generation of "excess power" was observed in
a series of deuterium-based experiments, but not in a hydrogen-based
experiment. The results of these experiments enable several (tentative)
conclusions to be reached concerning the conditions necessary for
the reproducible observation of this anomalous thermal effect.
Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, Research
Department, Chemistry Division andUniversity of Texas, Department
"Anomalous Effects Involving Excess Power, Radiation,
and Helium Production During D2O Electrolysis Using Palladium
Cathodes," by Melvin H. Miles, Benjamin F. Bush, and Joseph J. Lagowski,
Fusion Technology, Vol. 25, July 1994, pp. 478-486.
Previous experiments showed that eight electrolysis
gas samples collected during episodes of excess power production
in two identical cells contained measurable amounts of 4He
while six control samples gave no evidence for helium... This places
the 4He production rate at 1011 to 1012
atom/s per watt of excess power, which is the correct magnitude
for typical fusion reactions that yield helium as a product... Simultaneous
evidence for excess power, helium production, and anomalous radiation
was present in these experiments. Completely new experiments with
more precise helium measurements are reported that again show simultaneous
evidence for excess power, helium production, and anomalous radiation.
Naval Ocean Systems Center andU.S. Department
of Energy (Washington)
"On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of
evolving deuterium," S. Szpak (Navy), J.J. Smith (DoE), J. Electroanalytical
Chemistry, 302 (March 11, 1991), pp. 255-260.
...Three sets of preliminary experimental results
are presented here, i.e., the production of excess enthalpy, the
production of tritium, and the presence of some form of radiation.
Texas A&M University
"Triggering of Heat and Sub-surface Changes in Pd-D
Systems," Bockris, J. O'M., R. Sundaresan, Z. Minevski, and D. Letts,
Transactions of Fusion Technology (Proceedings of ICCF-4),
Vol. 26, 4T, Part 2, December 1994, p. 267-290.
More than four years after the first reports of chemically
stimulated nuclear reactions, the triggering of heat evolution and
the production of associated nuclear debris is still a highly uncertain
matter. This is so both as to the duration of the switch-on time
and, indeed, whether a given electrode will commence to show nuclear
activity within 500 hours of the ginning of electrolysis. In the
present study, three methods of triggering anomalous heat are described;
the changes in the sub-surface of palladium during the evolution
of D2 or H2 are described as a function of
potential, temperature, and time. Finally, these results are brought
up against the present theories of heat production in metals.
Texas A&M University
"Tritium and Helium Production in Palladium Electrodes
and the Fugacity of Deuterium Therein," John O'M. Bockris, Chun-Ching
Chien, Dalibor Hodko, Zoran Minevski, Frontiers of Cold Fusion,
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cold Fusion
(Nagoya, Japan 21-25 October, 1992), edited by Dr. Hideo Ikegami,
National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan, pp.
An account is given of the massive production of tritium
at a Pd electrode. Production continued for ~750 hours after which
time it was arbitrarily curtailed. Production of T was found to
cease every few days but could be resuscitated by increasing the
overpotential of the electrode reaction. A logarithmic relation
between the rate of tritium production and the overpotential of
the electrode reaction was established. The Will-Cedzynska method
of examining T contamination in specimens has shown that nothing
above the background of T was detected if no D2O had
been electrolytically evolved on the Pd specimens concerned. Helium
production was found to accompany that of T. The He was analyzed
by thermal expulsion and mass spectroscopy. No He3 was
found but He4 was measured in nine specimens out of ten
examined. Voids were also detected ~1 micron within the electrode.
The excess tritium production on Pd co-deposited with deuterium
University of Minnesota
"Calorimetric Measurements of Excess Power Output
During the Cathodic Charging of Deuterium into Palladium," R.A.
Oriani, J C. Nelson, S. Lee, and J. H. Broadhurst, Fusion Technol.
18 (1990) pp. 652-658.
A Seebeck-effect calorimeter was used to establish
that generation of energy, in excess of the electrical energy input,
can occur during the electrolysis of D2O. The magnitude
of the excess power is measured with respect to the electrolysis
of H2O as the baseline. The excess power levels of >60
W/cm3 palladium and excess energies of 74 kJ cannot be
understood in terms of recombination of D2 and O2
within the calorimeter, other chemical reactions, or a storage-and-relaxation
University of Utah and University of Southampton
"Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium,"
Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, Journal of Electroanalytical
Chemistry, 261, 1989, pp. 301-308; Errata, Journal of Electroanalytical
Chemistry, 263 , 1989, pp. 187-189.
Enthalpy generation can exceed 10 W cm-3
of the palladium electrode; this is maintained for experiment times
in excess of 120 h, during which typically heat in excess of 4 MJ
cm-3 of electrode volume was liberated. It is inconceivable
that this could be due to anything but nuclear processes.
University of Utah
"Calorimetry of the palladium-deuterium-heavy water
system," Martin Fleischmann, Stanley Pons, Mark W. Anderson, Lian
Jun Li, Marvin Hawkins, J. Electroanalytical Chemistry, 287,
No.2, 25 July 1990, pp.293-348.
It is shown that accurate values of the rates of enthalpy
generation in the electrolysis of light and heavy water can be obtained
from measurements in simple, single compartment Dewar type calorimeter
cells. This precise evaluation of the rate of enthalpy generation
relies on the non-linear regression fitting of the "black-box" model
of the calorimeter to an extensive set of temperature time measurements.
The method of data analysis gives a systematic underestimate of
the enthalpy output and, in consequence, a slightly negative excess
rate of enthalpy generation for an extensive set of blank experiments
using both light and heavy water. By contrast, the electrolysis
of heavy water at palladium electrodes shows a positive excess rate
of enthalpy generation; this rate increases markedly with current
density, reaching values of approximately 100 W cm-3
at approximately 1 A cm-2. It is also shown that prolonged
polarization of palladium cathodes in heavy water leads to bursts
in the rate of enthalpy generation: the thermal output of the cells
exceeds the enthalpy input (or the total energy input) to the cells
by factors in excess of 40 during these bursts. The total specific
energy output during the bursts as well as the total specific energy
output of fully charged electrodes subjected to prolonged polarization
(5-50 MJ cm-3) is 102-103 times
larger than the enthalpy of reaction of chemical processes.
IMRA Europe andUniversity of Southampton
"Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O system: from
simplicity via complications to simplicity," M. Fleischmann and
S. Pons Physics Letters A, 176 (1993) pp. 118-129
Abstract: We present here one aspect of our recent
research on the calorimetry of the Pd/D2O system which
has been concerned with high rates of specific excess enthalpy generation
(> 1 kW cm-3) at temperatures close to (or at) the
boiling point of the electrolyte solution. This has led to a particularly
simple method of deriving the rate of excess enthalpy production
based on measuring the times required to boil the cells to dryness,
this process being followed by using time-lapse video recordings.
Our use of this simple method as well as our investigations of the
results of other research groups prompts us to present also other
simple methods of data analysis which we have used in the preliminary
evaluations of these systems.
Mills Technologies and Ursinus College
"Excess Heat Production by the Electrolysis of an
Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte and the Implications for
Cold Fusion," Randell L. Mills, and Steven O. Kneizys, Fusion
Technology, Vol. 20, August 1991, pp. 65-81.
Calorimetry of pulsed current and continuous electrolysis
of aqueous potassium carbonate (K+/K+ electrocatalytic
couple) at a nickel cathode is performed in single cell dewar calorimetry
cells. Excess power out exceeded input power by a factor of >37.
[Note: Further spectacular results through 1999 are to be
found on the company's web site: http://www.blacklightpower.com]
National Cold Fusion Institute
"Reproducible tritium generation in electrochemical
cells employing palladium cathodes with high deuterium loading,"
by Fritz G. Will, Krystyna Cedzynska, and Denton C.
Linton, Journal of Electroanalytical Chem., 360, 1993,
Reproducible tritium generation well above background
has been observed in tightly closed D2SO4-containing
cells in four out of four Pd wire cathodes of one type... The
largest amount of tritium, generated in 7 days of continuous electrolysis,
was 2.1 x 1011 tritium atoms, compared with a background
of 4 x 109 tritium atoms...it is concluded that the
tritium was generated inside the Pd; only nuclear reactions, whose
nature is as yet unknown, could have produced the observed tritium.
Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons
"Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems,"
by Melvin H. Miles, Benjamin F. Bush, and Kendall B. Johnson, NAWCWPNS
Technical Publication 8302, September 1996, 99 pages.
Excess power was measured in 28 out of 94 electrochemical
experiments conducted using palladium or palladium-alloy cathodes
in heavy water...Results from our laboratory indicate that helium-4
is the missing nuclear product accompanying the excess heat. Thirty
out of 33 experiments showed a correlation between either excess
power and helium production or no excess power and no excess helium.
The collection of the electrolysis gases in both glass and metal
flasks place the helium-4 production rate at 1011 to
1012 atoms per second per watt of excess power. This
is the correct magnitude for typical deuteron fusion reactions that
yield helium-4 as a product. Anomalous radiation was detected in
some experiments by the use of X-ray films, Geiger-Mueller counters,
and by the use of sodium iodide detectors. There was never any significant
production of tritium in any of our experiments... Our results provide
compelling evidence that the anomalous effects in deuterated systems
are real...It is highly unlikely that our heat and helium correlations
could be due to random errors... Our best experiments produced up
to 30% excess heat, 0.52 watts of excess power, and 1400 kilojoules
(kJ) of excess enthalpy. This amount of excess enthalpy is difficult
to explain by any chemical reaction... Anomalous radiation was detected
in some experiments by the use of X-ray films, several different
types of Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters, and sodium iodide (NaI) detectors.
Normal radiation counts were always observed when no electrolysis
experiments were running...
Scientific Industrial Association
"Nuclear product ratio for glow discharge in deuterium,"
A.B. Karabut, Ya.R. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova, Physics Letters
A, 170 (1992), pp. 265-272.
New results for glow discharge in deuterium calorimetry
are presented. In separate experiments a heat output five times
exceeding the input electric power was observed. The result for
the charged particle spectrum measurement is presented. Charged
particles with energies up to 18 MeV and an average energy of 2-4
MeV were seen. Beams of gamma-rays with energies of about 200 keV
and a characteristic X-ray radiation were registered. The summed
energy of the registered products is three orders short of the values
needed to explain the calorimetric results.
Shell Research S.A. (France)
"Cold Fusion by Sparking in Hydrogen Isotopes," Jacques
Dufour, Fusion Technology, Vol. 24, September 1993, pp. 205-228.
Excess energy production, well above the background
and in amounts of the same order of magnitude as the input energy,
has been measured. This is caused by sparking in hydrogen isotopes
between electrodes made of metallic hydride-forming metals (palladium
and stainless steel). This excess energy production is stable
over long periods (several weeks) and is observed with both hydrogen
and deuterium. Only extremely low levels of neutrons and tritium
have been detected, many orders of magnitude below what would
be expected from the excess energy production measured. On the
contrary, copious emission of low-energy radiation (likely to
be beta rays) has been observed. A class of hypothetical nuclear
reactions, based on the action of the weak electronuclear force,
is proposed that accounts for all the experimental facts observed.
NASA Lewis Research Center
"Replication of the Apparent Excess Heat Effect in
a Light Water-Potassium Carbonate-Nickel Electrolytic Cell," by
Janis M. Niedra, Ira T. Meyers, Gustave C. Fralick, and Richard
S. Baldwin, NASA Technical Memorandum 107167, February 1996.
Replication of experiments claiming to demonstrate
excess heat production in light water-Ni-K2CO3
electrolytic cells was found to produce an apparent excess heat
of 11 watts maximum for 60 W electrical power into the cell. Power
gains ranged from 1.06 to 1.68...
Portland State University Department
"Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium
Cathodes After Electrolysis in Acidified Light and Heavy Water:
Correlation with Excess Heat," Dash, J. , G. Noble and D. Diman,
Transactions of Fusion Technology (Proceedings of ICCF-4),
Vol. 26, 4T, Part 2, December 1994, 299-306.
Experiments were performed using Pt anodes and Pd
cathodes. The electrolyte contained H2O and H2SO4
in one cell and D2O and H2SO4
in a similar cell connected in series. Excess heat, localized
melting, and localized concentrations of Au or Ag were observed.
The most probable explanation for these phenomena is nuclear fusion.
Los Alamos National Laboratory
"Tritium Production from a Low Voltage Deuterium Discharge
on Palladium and Other Metals," T.N. Claytor, D.D. Jackson, and
D.G. Tuggle, published on WWW and reprinted in Infinite Energy,
No. 7, March-April 1996, pp. 39-42,
Over the past year we have been able to demonstrate
that a plasma loading method produces an exciting and unexpected
amount of tritium from small palladium wires. In contrast to electrochemical
hydrogen or deuterium loading of palladium, this method yields
a reproducible tritium generation rate when various electrical
and physical conditions are met... We will show tritium generation
rates for deuterium-palladium foreground runs that are up to 25
times larger than hydrogen-palladium control experiments using
materials from the same batch. [See also, "Tritium Evolution from
Various Morphologies of Deuterated Palladium," Proceedings
of the Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion, December
6-9, 1993, Maui, Hawaii, Edited by Y.O. Passell, EPRI TR-104188,
University of Rome, Department of Chemistry and
Laboratory of Physics, Istituto Superiore de Sanita
"X-ray, Heat Excess, and 4He in the Electrochemical
Confinement of Deuterium in Palladium," F. Cellucci, P.L. Cignini,
G. Gigli, D. Gozzi, M. Tomellini, E. Cisbani, S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi,
M. Jodice, G.M. Urciuoli, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy,
Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
on Cold Fusion (ICCF-6), October 13-18, 1996, pp. 3-11.
The energy balance between heat excess an 4He
in the gas phase has been found reasonably satisfied even if the
low levels of 4He found do not give the necessary confidence
to state definitely that we are dealing with the fusion of deuterons
to give 4He.
"Solid State Plasma Fusion ('Cold Fusion')," Yoshiaki
Arata and Yue-Chang Zhang, Journal of the High Temperature Society
of Japan, Vol.23, January 1997, 56 pages (the entire Volume!)
Using a quadrupole mass spectrometer ("QMS"),
significantly large amounts of helium...were detected from deuterated
palladium samples that had produced large amounts of anomalous
excess energy (200-500 MJ/cm3) during Cold Fusion
experiments (~5,000 [hr]). The helium was released from samples
after the observation of excess energy, and only when each sample
was heated to a high temperature (>1,000 °C) in a high
vacuum (~3 x 10-9 [Torr]).
Fusion Studies Laboratory, University of Illinois
and Clean Energy Technologies, Inc.
"Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings
Undergoing Electrolysis," George H. Miley and James A. Patterson,
paper delivered at the Second International Conference on Low Energy
Nuclear Reactions, Texas A&M University, September 13-14, 1996,
published also in Infinite Energy, No. 9, 1996, pp. 19-32.
Experiments using 1-mm plastic and glass microspheres
coated with single and multilayers of thin films of various
metals such as palladium and nickel, used in a packed-bed electrolytic
cell (Patterson Power Cell™ Configuration), have apparently
produced a variety of nuclear reaction products. The analysis
of a run with 650-Å film of Ni is presented here. Following
a two-week electrolytic run, the Ni film was found to contain
Fe, Ag, Cu, Mg, and Cr, in concentrations exceeding 2 atom %
each, plus a number of additional trace elements. These elements
were at the most, only present in the initial film and the electrolyte
plus other accessible cell components in much smaller amounts.
That fact, combined with other data, such as deviations from
natural isotope abundances, seemingly eliminates the alternate
explanation of impurities concentrating in the film. Results
showing a broad array of products, such as found here, have
also been obtained with thin film coatings of other materials,
e.g., Pd and multi-layers of Pd and Ni. The yields of the major
elements contributing depend on the film material, however...
The array of products found in these experiments is consistent
with recent studies of solid Pd and Au electrodes by Mizuno
et al., 1996 and Ohmori and Enyo, 1996, respectively...
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Advanced Technology
"Detection of Anomalous Elements, X-ray and Excess
Heat Induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium Through Multilayer
Cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd)," Yasuhiro Iwamura, Takehiko Itoh, Nobuaki Gotoh,
Mitsuru Sakano, Ichiro Toyoda, and Hiroshi Sakata, Proceedings
of the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7),
April 19-24, 1998, pp. 167-171, also published in Infinite Energy,
No. 20, 1998, pp. 56-58.
A new type of experimental apparatus is developed
to induce nuclear reactions by continuous diffusion of deuterium.
Ti atoms, which cannot be explained by contamination, were detected
on the surface where deuterium atoms passed through on Pd cathodes
after electrolysis. A multi-layer cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd) is introduced
based on an EINR (Electron Induced Nuclear Reaction) model.
Excess heat generations and x-ray emissions were observed for
all the cases we tried by the multi-layer cathodes. 57Fe/56Fe
ratio of Fe atoms detected in the multilayer cathodes is anomalously
larger than natural 57Fe/56Fe.
University of Lecce, Department of Physics (Italy)
Laboratory of Applied Electronics
"Morphologic Deformation and Distribution of Generated
Elements in Saturated Palladium Samples Processed by a UV Excimer
Laser," Vincenzo Nassisi, Infinite Energy, No. 15/16, July-November
1997, pp. 119-122.
This work reports on the experimental results
obtained from saturated palladium hydrides processed by a XeCl
excimer laser. This process provided a screening effect of 14.2
when it was applied to deuterated palladium samples. They presented
a low neutron emission and a strong tendency to release particles
when were perturbed by O2. The samples processed
showed morphologic changes with formation of pits and superficial
stresses. Besides, the transmutation of many elements, Al, Au,
C, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Nd, Ni, O, S, Si, V and Zn, was recorded.
"Detection of Radiation Emission, Heat Generation,
and Elements from a Pt Electrode Induced by Electrolytic Discharge
in Alkaline Solutions," Tadahiko Mizuno, Tadayoshi Ohmori, and Tadashi
Akimoto, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference
on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, pp. 253-258.
Radiation emission, heat generation, and detection
of elements were confirmed during electrolytic discharge at
high voltage in a light water solution containing an alkaline
ion from the platinum electrode.
Departement de Physique Faculte des Sciences de
"Excess Heat Measurement in AlLaO3 Doped
with Deuterium," Jean-Paul Biberian, Proceedings of the Fifth
International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-5), April 9-13,
1995, Monte Carlo, Monaco, pp. 49-56.
We show evidence that solid state electrolytes
can be used successfully in "cold fusion" experiments. We describe
in this work that LaAlO3 single crystals loaded with
deuterium produce excess heat up to ten times the amount of
electrical power applied. No significant amount of neutrons
has been detected.
University of Minnesota, Corrosion Research Center
Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
"An Investigation of Anomalous Thermal Power Generation
from A Proton-Conducting Oxide," R.A. Oriani, Fusion Technology,
Vol. 30, Nov. 1996, pp. 281-287.
A high temperature Seebeck-effect calorimeter,
in which the thermoelectric electromotive force across a large-area-enveloping
thermopile is a measure of the heat flux from a power source,
has been constructed to examine the claimed generation of excess
thermal energy from a proton-conducting oxide immersed in deuterium
gas. The claim has been confirmed in a few experiments out of
many unsuccessful ones.
Tsinghua University, Dept. of Physics (China)
"'Excess Heat' Measurement in Gas-loading D/Pd System,"
Xing Zhong Li, Wei Zhong Yue, Gui Song Huang,. Hang Shi, Lan Gao,
Meng Lin Liu, Feng Shan Bu, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy,
Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
on Cold Fusion (ICCF-6), October 13-18, 1996, Toya, Japan, pp.
A gas-loading D/Pd system has been designed to
measure the "excess heat." The preliminary result has shown
that the calorimetric feature of the D/Pd system is distinct
from that of its twin H/Pd system. The difference between these
twin systems can be attributed to the "excess heat" of the order
of watts per cubic centimeter of palladium... We have observed
this excess heat for more than 5 months... It is about 1,000
eV for each palladium atom, which is very difficult to be attributed
to any chemical resource.
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)
"Reproducible, Anomalous Emissions from Palladium
Deuteride/Hydride," R.K. Rout, A. Shyam, M. Srinivasan, and A.B.
Garg, V. K. Shrikhande, Fusion Technology, Vol. 30, November
1996, pp. 273-280.
Each and every palladium sample loaded/reloaded
either with hydrogen or deuterium was observed to fog radiographic
films kept in its close proximity in air. Strangely, even with
ten layers of black paper (thickness ~63 mg/cm2) as
a filter between film and sample, fogging was observed. On the
other hand, no fogging could be observed even when thin beryllium
foil (~ 1.4 mg/cm2), three layers of transparent polyester
foils (~10 mg/cm2), or thin aluminized polycarbonate
(0.3 mg/cm2) were employed as filters. Several experiments
have been performed to identify the phenomenon responsible for
fogging. These experiments appear to rule out any of the known
mechanisms, suggesting a new, strange, and unknown phenomena.
Philips Research Laboratories (The Netherlands)
"Reduced radioactivity of tritium in small titanium
particles," Otto Reifenschweiler, Physics Letters A, 184
(1994), pp. 149-153.
By heating a TiT0.0035 preparation consisting
of extremely small monocrystalline particles (f ~15 nm
) a decrease of the radioactivity by 40% was observed. In further
experiments the concentration of tritium in such preparations
was varied (TiTx experiments) showing that the radioactivity
of the tritium increased less than proportionally to its concentration.
Careful analysis of the experiments seems to rule out the possibility
of trivial errors. A provisional hypothetical explanation is formulated.
Our experiments may point to a connection with cold DD-fusion.
First Gate Energies, Mountain View, CA
"Predictable and Reproducible Heat," Roger Stringham,
John Chandler, Russ George, Tom Passell, and Richard Raymond, Proceedings
of the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7),
April 19-24, 1998, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 361-365.
The application of transient cavitation bubbles,
TCBs, in conjunction with metal foils has proved to be a good
scientific probe or tool for the predictable measurements of excess
heat Q(x) and heat-after Q(a) at steady state temperatures. The
TCB jet produces a high density coherent flux of D+
that is injected into the foil lattice with a flux density of
about 1024 D+/cm2 in a few pico
seconds and at 40 KHz billions of TCBs are formed on the lattice
each second. The data is measured at 5 min. intervals over a period
of 24 hours in a static device with some 43 sonication runs and
an equal number of calibration runs. A Joule heater is included
in the piezo-driven reactor to calibrate all runs. It was found
from earlier unpublished work that a number of foils will produce
both Q(x) and Q(a) in D20. The Q(a) is different in
a mixture of light and heavy water. Q(a) is divided into two distinct
processes; Q(al) involving just deuterons and the larger Q(a2)
involving both deuterons and protons. The knowledge gained from
43 experiments reported on in this paper were completed in the
period of Feb. to Apr. of 1998. The energy values for Q(x) and
Q(a') outputs vary from 40 KJ to mega Joules with rates that vary
from 1 to 15 watts depending on the conditions. The one parameter
that is not predictable at this point is the duration of Q(a)
JET Energy Technology, Inc. (Wellesley, MA)
andMassachusetts Institute of Technology
"Optimal Operating Point Characteristics of Nickel
light Water Experiments," Mitchell R. Swartz, Proceedings of
the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7),
April 19-24, 1998, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 371-377.
Nickel light-water electrochemically loaded systems
with a variety of cathodes have been investigated using low-noise
multiring calorimetry. Plots of excess heat, or power gain, as a
function of input electric power drive indicate a narrow locus of
optimal system operating points. At the center of the optimal operating
point, the peak power ratio or power gain may be at a relative maximum.
Driving with electrical input power beyond this operating point
yields a typical falloff of the observed power ratio for increasing
input power or current levels toward a power gain ratio of 1 and
less. This optimal operating point behavior to increasing input
electrical power drive may be general behavior for both palladium-heavy
water and nickel-light water systems including the production of
ash and enthalpy.
National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNF)
and CISE and ORIM (Italy)
"Preliminary results with 'Cincinnati Group Cell'
on Thorium 'Transmutation' Under 50 Hz AC Excitation," F. Celani,
M. Achilli, A. Battaglia, C. Cattaneo, C. Buzzanca, P.G. Sona, A.
Mancini, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference
on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, Vancouver, British
Columbia, Canada, pp. 56-67.
We give the procedure and the results of experiments
performed with a standard "Cincinnati Group Cell," aimed to observe
possible "transmutation" of Th in other elements via an AC electrolytic
process. Three techniques have been used to avoid bias due to
spurious effects: a-radiometry, ICP/MS and ICP/optical, looking
at difference between initial and final solution and between blank
(no Th) and "black (with Th) processed solutions. We found a deficit
of Th after processing and new elements produced. The results
are still not conclusive on transmutation and we discuss arguments
in favor and against the transmutation hypothesis. We clarify
the critical points of the measurement techniques, adding some
suggestions to improve the reliability of results in future measurements.
Dr. Edmund Storms (Los Alamos National Laboratory),
"Review of Experimental Observations About the Cold Fusion Effect,"
Fusion Technology, 1991, Vol.20, December, 1991, pp.433-477.
Dr. M. Srinivasan (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Bombay, India), "Nuclear Fusion in an Atomic Lattice: Update on
the International Status of Cold Fusion Research," Current Science,
25 April 1991.
"A Review of the Investigations of the Fleischmann-Pons
Phenomena," John O'M. Bockris, Guang H. Lin, and Nigle J.C. Packham,
Fusion Technology, Vol. 18, August 1990, pp. 11-31.
BARC Studies in Cold Fusion (April-September
1989), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, BARC - 1500, December, 1989,
P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan; also in Fusion Technology,
Vol. 18, August 1990, pp. 32-94.
First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion (March
28-31, 1990): Conference Proceedings, by the National Cold Fusion
Institute, Salt Lake City.
Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid
Systems, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings
228, 1991, Steven E. Jones, Franco Scaramuzzi, and David Worledge
(editors), Proceedings of an International Progress Review on Anomalous
Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, Brigham Young University,
Provo, Utah, October 22-24, 1990. (approx. 1000 pages)
Investigation of Cold Fusion Phenomena in
Deuterated Metals (four volumes), by the National Cold Fusion
Institute (Salt Lake City), June 1991, now available from NTIS.
The Science of Cold Fusion: Proceedings
of the II Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, June 29-July 4,
1991, Como, Italy, published by the Italian Physical Society, Bologna,
Italy, 1991, edited by T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata
Frontiers of Cold Fusion, Proceedings of
the Third International Conference on Cold Fusion (Nagoya, Japan
21-25 October, 1992), edited by Dr. Hideo Ikegami, National
Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan.
Proceedings: Fourth International Conference
on Cold Fusion (December 6-9, 1993, Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii),
published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the conference
was sponsored by EPRI and the Office of Naval Research. Four volumes
of the proceedings edited by Thomas O. Passell (EPRI). A large selection
of papers from the Proceedings were peer-reviewed and published
in a dedicated issue of Fusion Technology, December 1994,
Volume 26, No.4T, part 2, 535 pages.
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference
on Cold Fusion (ICCF-5), April 9-13, 1995, Monte Carlo, Monaco,
Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, Vol.
1 and Vol. 2, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
on Cold Fusion (ICCF-6), October 13-18, 1996,Toya, Japan, 709
Proceedings of the Seventh International
Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, Vancouver,
British Columbia, Canada, Published by ENECO, Salt Lake City, 512