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infinite energy

Key Experiments That Substantiate Cold Fusion Phenomena
Compiled by Eugene F. Mallove, Sc. D., Editor-in-Chief
Infinite Energy Magazine

Below are listed select technical papers that include substantive data providing documentation of the existence of "Cold Fusion." Abstracts or excerpts from these documents are provided so that the researcher may have a sense of the subject and content of the paper. We strongly recommend returning to the original documents to gain a fuller understanding of the validating work that has been been done in this field. For more information on current research, data, and published papers relating to this field, we also highly recommend subscribing to Infinite Energy magazine.

Several thousand technical papers now exist in the area that has become known as "cold fusion" and "low-energy nuclear reactions" (LENR), or "chemically assisted nuclear reactions" (CANR). The papers that are highlighted here are those that might be considered the "Select 34" publications that report experimental results. The salient conclusions of each study are abstracted. These experimental results, taken from a much larger body, make what we consider to be an irrefutable case for the reality of cold fusion phenomena. Note well: This selection is not intended to detract from the very high value of many, many other quality papers that have been published in the field. Furthermore, this selection does not include the large number of papers that discuss the theoretical foundations of cold fusion phenomena. (The order of paper presentation is somewhat arbitrary. It is designed to give a feel for the kinds of results and the variety of institutions reporting them.)

Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Technology Division

"Electrolytic Tritium Production," by Edmund Storms and Carol Talcott, Fusion Technology, Vol. 17, July 1990, pp. 680-695.

Fifty-three electrolytic cells of various configurations and electrode compositions were examined for tritium production. Significant tritium was found in 11 cells at levels between 1.5 and 80 times the starting concentration after enrichment corrections are made.

 

Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Technology Division

"Review of Experimental Observations About the Cold Fusion Effect," by Edmund Storms, Fusion Technology, Vol.20, December 1991, pp. 433-477.

The experimental literature describing the cold fusion phenomenon is reviewed. The number and variety of careful experimental measurements of heat, tritium, neutron, and helium production strongly support the occurrence of nuclear reactions in a metal lattice near room temperature, as proposed by Pons and Fleischmann, and independently by Jones.

 

SRI International and Electric Power Research Institute

"Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals," M.C.H. McKubre, et al., EPRI TR-104195, Research Project 3170-01, Final Report, August 1994, 128 pages, plus 342 pages on microfiche.

This work confirms the claims of Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins of the production of excess heat in deuterium-loaded palladium cathodes at levels too large for chemical transformation... Although nuclear reaction products commensurate with the excess heat have not yet been observed, small but definite evidence of nuclear reactions have been detected at levels some 40 orders of magnitude greater than predicted by conventional nuclear theory.

 

SRI International and Electric Power Research Institute

"Isothermal flow calorimetric investigations of the D/Pd and H/Pd systems," M.C.H. McKubre, S. Crouch-Baker, R.C. Rocha-Filho, S.I. Smedley, F.L. Tanzella, T.O. Passell, and J. Santucci, Journal of Electroanaytical Chemistry, 368, 1994, pp.55-66.

...the generation of "excess power" was observed in a series of deuterium-based experiments, but not in a hydrogen-based experiment. The results of these experiments enable several (tentative) conclusions to be reached concerning the conditions necessary for the reproducible observation of this anomalous thermal effect.

 

Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, Research Department, Chemistry Division andUniversity of Texas, Department of Chemistry

"Anomalous Effects Involving Excess Power, Radiation, and Helium Production During D2O Electrolysis Using Palladium Cathodes," by Melvin H. Miles, Benjamin F. Bush, and Joseph J. Lagowski, Fusion Technology, Vol. 25, July 1994, pp. 478-486.

Previous experiments showed that eight electrolysis gas samples collected during episodes of excess power production in two identical cells contained measurable amounts of 4He while six control samples gave no evidence for helium... This places the 4He production rate at 1011 to 1012 atom/s per watt of excess power, which is the correct magnitude for typical fusion reactions that yield helium as a product... Simultaneous evidence for excess power, helium production, and anomalous radiation was present in these experiments. Completely new experiments with more precise helium measurements are reported that again show simultaneous evidence for excess power, helium production, and anomalous radiation.

 

Naval Ocean Systems Center andU.S. Department of Energy (Washington)

"On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of evolving deuterium," S. Szpak (Navy), J.J. Smith (DoE), J. Electroanalytical Chemistry, 302 (March 11, 1991), pp. 255-260.

...Three sets of preliminary experimental results are presented here, i.e., the production of excess enthalpy, the production of tritium, and the presence of some form of radiation.

 

Texas A&M University

"Triggering of Heat and Sub-surface Changes in Pd-D Systems," Bockris, J. O'M., R. Sundaresan, Z. Minevski, and D. Letts, Transactions of Fusion Technology (Proceedings of ICCF-4), Vol. 26, 4T, Part 2, December 1994, p. 267-290.

More than four years after the first reports of chemically stimulated nuclear reactions, the triggering of heat evolution and the production of associated nuclear debris is still a highly uncertain matter. This is so both as to the duration of the switch-on time and, indeed, whether a given electrode will commence to show nuclear activity within 500 hours of the ginning of electrolysis. In the present study, three methods of triggering anomalous heat are described; the changes in the sub-surface of palladium during the evolution of D2 or H2 are described as a function of potential, temperature, and time. Finally, these results are brought up against the present theories of heat production in metals.

 

Texas A&M University

"Tritium and Helium Production in Palladium Electrodes and the Fugacity of Deuterium Therein," John O'M. Bockris, Chun-Ching Chien, Dalibor Hodko, Zoran Minevski, Frontiers of Cold Fusion, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cold Fusion (Nagoya, Japan 21-25 October, 1992), edited by Dr. Hideo Ikegami, National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan, pp. 231-240.

An account is given of the massive production of tritium at a Pd electrode. Production continued for ~750 hours after which time it was arbitrarily curtailed. Production of T was found to cease every few days but could be resuscitated by increasing the overpotential of the electrode reaction. A logarithmic relation between the rate of tritium production and the overpotential of the electrode reaction was established. The Will-Cedzynska method of examining T contamination in specimens has shown that nothing above the background of T was detected if no D2O had been electrolytically evolved on the Pd specimens concerned. Helium production was found to accompany that of T. The He was analyzed by thermal expulsion and mass spectroscopy. No He3 was found but He4 was measured in nine specimens out of ten examined. Voids were also detected ~1 micron within the electrode. The excess tritium production on Pd co-deposited with deuterium was found...

 

University of Minnesota

"Calorimetric Measurements of Excess Power Output During the Cathodic Charging of Deuterium into Palladium," R.A. Oriani, J C. Nelson, S. Lee, and J. H. Broadhurst, Fusion Technol. 18 (1990) pp. 652-658.

A Seebeck-effect calorimeter was used to establish that generation of energy, in excess of the electrical energy input, can occur during the electrolysis of D2O. The magnitude of the excess power is measured with respect to the electrolysis of H2O as the baseline. The excess power levels of >60 W/cm3 palladium and excess energies of 74 kJ cannot be understood in terms of recombination of D2 and O2 within the calorimeter, other chemical reactions, or a storage-and-relaxation mechanism.

 

University of Utah and University of Southampton

"Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium," Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 261, 1989, pp. 301-308; Errata, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 263 , 1989, pp. 187-189.

Enthalpy generation can exceed 10 W cm-3 of the palladium electrode; this is maintained for experiment times in excess of 120 h, during which typically heat in excess of 4 MJ cm-3 of electrode volume was liberated. It is inconceivable that this could be due to anything but nuclear processes.

 

University of Utah

"Calorimetry of the palladium-deuterium-heavy water system," Martin Fleischmann, Stanley Pons, Mark W. Anderson, Lian Jun Li, Marvin Hawkins, J. Electroanalytical Chemistry, 287, No.2, 25 July 1990, pp.293-348.

It is shown that accurate values of the rates of enthalpy generation in the electrolysis of light and heavy water can be obtained from measurements in simple, single compartment Dewar type calorimeter cells. This precise evaluation of the rate of enthalpy generation relies on the non-linear regression fitting of the "black-box" model of the calorimeter to an extensive set of temperature time measurements. The method of data analysis gives a systematic underestimate of the enthalpy output and, in consequence, a slightly negative excess rate of enthalpy generation for an extensive set of blank experiments using both light and heavy water. By contrast, the electrolysis of heavy water at palladium electrodes shows a positive excess rate of enthalpy generation; this rate increases markedly with current density, reaching values of approximately 100 W cm-3 at approximately 1 A cm-2. It is also shown that prolonged polarization of palladium cathodes in heavy water leads to bursts in the rate of enthalpy generation: the thermal output of the cells exceeds the enthalpy input (or the total energy input) to the cells by factors in excess of 40 during these bursts. The total specific energy output during the bursts as well as the total specific energy output of fully charged electrodes subjected to prolonged polarization (5-50 MJ cm-3) is 102-103 times larger than the enthalpy of reaction of chemical processes.

 

IMRA Europe andUniversity of Southampton

"Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O system: from simplicity via complications to simplicity," M. Fleischmann and S. Pons Physics Letters A, 176 (1993) pp. 118-129

Abstract: We present here one aspect of our recent research on the calorimetry of the Pd/D2O system which has been concerned with high rates of specific excess enthalpy generation (> 1 kW cm-3) at temperatures close to (or at) the boiling point of the electrolyte solution. This has led to a particularly simple method of deriving the rate of excess enthalpy production based on measuring the times required to boil the cells to dryness, this process being followed by using time-lapse video recordings. Our use of this simple method as well as our investigations of the results of other research groups prompts us to present also other simple methods of data analysis which we have used in the preliminary evaluations of these systems.

 

Mills Technologies and Ursinus College

"Excess Heat Production by the Electrolysis of an Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte and the Implications for Cold Fusion," Randell L. Mills, and Steven O. Kneizys, Fusion Technology, Vol. 20, August 1991, pp. 65-81.

Calorimetry of pulsed current and continuous electrolysis of aqueous potassium carbonate (K+/K+ electrocatalytic couple) at a nickel cathode is performed in single cell dewar calorimetry cells. Excess power out exceeded input power by a factor of >37. [Note: Further spectacular results through 1999 are to be found on the company's web site: http://www.blacklightpower.com]

 

National Cold Fusion Institute

"Reproducible tritium generation in electrochemical cells employing palladium cathodes with high deuterium loading,"

by Fritz G. Will, Krystyna Cedzynska, and Denton C. Linton, Journal of Electroanalytical Chem., 360, 1993, pp. 161-176

Reproducible tritium generation well above background has been observed in tightly closed D2SO4-containing cells in four out of four Pd wire cathodes of one type... The largest amount of tritium, generated in 7 days of continuous electrolysis, was 2.1 x 1011 tritium atoms, compared with a background of 4 x 109 tritium atoms...it is concluded that the tritium was generated inside the Pd; only nuclear reactions, whose nature is as yet unknown, could have produced the observed tritium.

 

Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division

"Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems," by Melvin H. Miles, Benjamin F. Bush, and Kendall B. Johnson, NAWCWPNS Technical Publication 8302, September 1996, 99 pages.

Excess power was measured in 28 out of 94 electrochemical experiments conducted using palladium or palladium-alloy cathodes in heavy water...Results from our laboratory indicate that helium-4 is the missing nuclear product accompanying the excess heat. Thirty out of 33 experiments showed a correlation between either excess power and helium production or no excess power and no excess helium. The collection of the electrolysis gases in both glass and metal flasks place the helium-4 production rate at 1011 to 1012 atoms per second per watt of excess power. This is the correct magnitude for typical deuteron fusion reactions that yield helium-4 as a product. Anomalous radiation was detected in some experiments by the use of X-ray films, Geiger-Mueller counters, and by the use of sodium iodide detectors. There was never any significant production of tritium in any of our experiments... Our results provide compelling evidence that the anomalous effects in deuterated systems are real...It is highly unlikely that our heat and helium correlations could be due to random errors... Our best experiments produced up to 30% excess heat, 0.52 watts of excess power, and 1400 kilojoules (kJ) of excess enthalpy. This amount of excess enthalpy is difficult to explain by any chemical reaction... Anomalous radiation was detected in some experiments by the use of X-ray films, several different types of Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters, and sodium iodide (NaI) detectors. Normal radiation counts were always observed when no electrolysis experiments were running...

 

Scientific Industrial Association LUTCH (Russia)

"Nuclear product ratio for glow discharge in deuterium," A.B. Karabut, Ya.R. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova, Physics Letters A, 170 (1992), pp. 265-272.

New results for glow discharge in deuterium calorimetry are presented. In separate experiments a heat output five times exceeding the input electric power was observed. The result for the charged particle spectrum measurement is presented. Charged particles with energies up to 18 MeV and an average energy of 2-4 MeV were seen. Beams of gamma-rays with energies of about 200 keV and a characteristic X-ray radiation were registered. The summed energy of the registered products is three orders short of the values needed to explain the calorimetric results.

 

Shell Research S.A. (France)

"Cold Fusion by Sparking in Hydrogen Isotopes," Jacques Dufour, Fusion Technology, Vol. 24, September 1993, pp. 205-228.

Excess energy production, well above the background and in amounts of the same order of magnitude as the input energy, has been measured. This is caused by sparking in hydrogen isotopes between electrodes made of metallic hydride-forming metals (palladium and stainless steel). This excess energy production is stable over long periods (several weeks) and is observed with both hydrogen and deuterium. Only extremely low levels of neutrons and tritium have been detected, many orders of magnitude below what would be expected from the excess energy production measured. On the contrary, copious emission of low-energy radiation (likely to be beta rays) has been observed. A class of hypothetical nuclear reactions, based on the action of the weak electronuclear force, is proposed that accounts for all the experimental facts observed.

 

NASA Lewis Research Center

"Replication of the Apparent Excess Heat Effect in a Light Water-Potassium Carbonate-Nickel Electrolytic Cell," by Janis M. Niedra, Ira T. Meyers, Gustave C. Fralick, and Richard S. Baldwin, NASA Technical Memorandum 107167, February 1996.

Replication of experiments claiming to demonstrate excess heat production in light water-Ni-K2CO3 electrolytic cells was found to produce an apparent excess heat of 11 watts maximum for 60 W electrical power into the cell. Power gains ranged from 1.06 to 1.68...

 

Portland State University Department of Physics

"Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium Cathodes After Electrolysis in Acidified Light and Heavy Water: Correlation with Excess Heat," Dash, J. , G. Noble and D. Diman, Transactions of Fusion Technology (Proceedings of ICCF-4), Vol. 26, 4T, Part 2, December 1994, 299-306.

Experiments were performed using Pt anodes and Pd cathodes. The electrolyte contained H2O and H2SO4 in one cell and D2O and H2SO4 in a similar cell connected in series. Excess heat, localized melting, and localized concentrations of Au or Ag were observed. The most probable explanation for these phenomena is nuclear fusion.

 

Los Alamos National Laboratory

"Tritium Production from a Low Voltage Deuterium Discharge on Palladium and Other Metals," T.N. Claytor, D.D. Jackson, and D.G. Tuggle, published on WWW and reprinted in Infinite Energy, No. 7, March-April 1996, pp. 39-42,

Over the past year we have been able to demonstrate that a plasma loading method produces an exciting and unexpected amount of tritium from small palladium wires. In contrast to electrochemical hydrogen or deuterium loading of palladium, this method yields a reproducible tritium generation rate when various electrical and physical conditions are met... We will show tritium generation rates for deuterium-palladium foreground runs that are up to 25 times larger than hydrogen-palladium control experiments using materials from the same batch. [See also, "Tritium Evolution from Various Morphologies of Deuterated Palladium," Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion, December 6-9, 1993, Maui, Hawaii, Edited by Y.O. Passell, EPRI TR-104188, July 1994.]

 

University of Rome, Department of Chemistry and Laboratory of Physics, Istituto Superiore de Sanita

"X-ray, Heat Excess, and 4He in the Electrochemical Confinement of Deuterium in Palladium," F. Cellucci, P.L. Cignini, G. Gigli, D. Gozzi, M. Tomellini, E. Cisbani, S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, M. Jodice, G.M. Urciuoli, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-6), October 13-18, 1996, pp. 3-11.

The energy balance between heat excess an 4He in the gas phase has been found reasonably satisfied even if the low levels of 4He found do not give the necessary confidence to state definitely that we are dealing with the fusion of deuterons to give 4He.

 

Osaka University

"Solid State Plasma Fusion ('Cold Fusion')," Yoshiaki Arata and Yue-Chang Zhang, Journal of the High Temperature Society of Japan, Vol.23, January 1997, 56 pages (the entire Volume!)

Using a quadrupole mass spectrometer ("QMS"), significantly large amounts of helium...were detected from deuterated palladium samples that had produced large amounts of anomalous excess energy (200-500 MJ/cm3) during Cold Fusion experiments (~5,000 [hr]). The helium was released from samples after the observation of excess energy, and only when each sample was heated to a high temperature (>1,000 °C) in a high vacuum (~3 x 10-9 [Torr]).

 

Fusion Studies Laboratory, University of Illinois and Clean Energy Technologies, Inc.

"Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis," George H. Miley and James A. Patterson, paper delivered at the Second International Conference on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, Texas A&M University, September 13-14, 1996, published also in Infinite Energy, No. 9, 1996, pp. 19-32.

Experiments using 1-mm plastic and glass microspheres coated with single and multilayers of thin films of various metals such as palladium and nickel, used in a packed-bed electrolytic cell (Patterson Power Cell™ Configuration), have apparently produced a variety of nuclear reaction products. The analysis of a run with 650-Å film of Ni is presented here. Following a two-week electrolytic run, the Ni film was found to contain Fe, Ag, Cu, Mg, and Cr, in concentrations exceeding 2 atom % each, plus a number of additional trace elements. These elements were at the most, only present in the initial film and the electrolyte plus other accessible cell components in much smaller amounts. That fact, combined with other data, such as deviations from natural isotope abundances, seemingly eliminates the alternate explanation of impurities concentrating in the film. Results showing a broad array of products, such as found here, have also been obtained with thin film coatings of other materials, e.g., Pd and multi-layers of Pd and Ni. The yields of the major elements contributing depend on the film material, however... The array of products found in these experiments is consistent with recent studies of solid Pd and Au electrodes by Mizuno et al., 1996 and Ohmori and Enyo, 1996, respectively...

 

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Advanced Technology Research Center

"Detection of Anomalous Elements, X-ray and Excess Heat Induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium Through Multilayer Cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd)," Yasuhiro Iwamura, Takehiko Itoh, Nobuaki Gotoh, Mitsuru Sakano, Ichiro Toyoda, and Hiroshi Sakata, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, pp. 167-171, also published in Infinite Energy, No. 20, 1998, pp. 56-58.

A new type of experimental apparatus is developed to induce nuclear reactions by continuous diffusion of deuterium. Ti atoms, which cannot be explained by contamination, were detected on the surface where deuterium atoms passed through on Pd cathodes after electrolysis. A multi-layer cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd) is introduced based on an EINR (Electron Induced Nuclear Reaction) model. Excess heat generations and x-ray emissions were observed for all the cases we tried by the multi-layer cathodes. 57Fe/56Fe ratio of Fe atoms detected in the multilayer cathodes is anomalously larger than natural 57Fe/56Fe.

 

University of Lecce, Department of Physics (Italy) Laboratory of Applied Electronics

"Morphologic Deformation and Distribution of Generated Elements in Saturated Palladium Samples Processed by a UV Excimer Laser," Vincenzo Nassisi, Infinite Energy, No. 15/16, July-November 1997, pp. 119-122.

This work reports on the experimental results obtained from saturated palladium hydrides processed by a XeCl excimer laser. This process provided a screening effect of 14.2 when it was applied to deuterated palladium samples. They presented a low neutron emission and a strong tendency to release particles when were perturbed by O2. The samples processed showed morphologic changes with formation of pits and superficial stresses. Besides, the transmutation of many elements, Al, Au, C, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Nd, Ni, O, S, Si, V and Zn, was recorded.

 

Hokkaido University

"Detection of Radiation Emission, Heat Generation, and Elements from a Pt Electrode Induced by Electrolytic Discharge in Alkaline Solutions," Tadahiko Mizuno, Tadayoshi Ohmori, and Tadashi Akimoto, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, pp. 253-258.

Radiation emission, heat generation, and detection of elements were confirmed during electrolytic discharge at high voltage in a light water solution containing an alkaline ion from the platinum electrode.

 

Departement de Physique Faculte des Sciences de Luminy (France)

"Excess Heat Measurement in AlLaO3 Doped with Deuterium," Jean-Paul Biberian, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-5), April 9-13, 1995, Monte Carlo, Monaco, pp. 49-56.

We show evidence that solid state electrolytes can be used successfully in "cold fusion" experiments. We describe in this work that LaAlO3 single crystals loaded with deuterium produce excess heat up to ten times the amount of electrical power applied. No significant amount of neutrons has been detected.

 

University of Minnesota, Corrosion Research Center Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

"An Investigation of Anomalous Thermal Power Generation from A Proton-Conducting Oxide," R.A. Oriani, Fusion Technology, Vol. 30, Nov. 1996, pp. 281-287.

A high temperature Seebeck-effect calorimeter, in which the thermoelectric electromotive force across a large-area-enveloping thermopile is a measure of the heat flux from a power source, has been constructed to examine the claimed generation of excess thermal energy from a proton-conducting oxide immersed in deuterium gas. The claim has been confirmed in a few experiments out of many unsuccessful ones.

 

Tsinghua University, Dept. of Physics (China)

"'Excess Heat' Measurement in Gas-loading D/Pd System," Xing Zhong Li, Wei Zhong Yue, Gui Song Huang,. Hang Shi, Lan Gao, Meng Lin Liu, Feng Shan Bu, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-6), October 13-18, 1996, Toya, Japan, pp. 455-462.

A gas-loading D/Pd system has been designed to measure the "excess heat." The preliminary result has shown that the calorimetric feature of the D/Pd system is distinct from that of its twin H/Pd system. The difference between these twin systems can be attributed to the "excess heat" of the order of watts per cubic centimeter of palladium... We have observed this excess heat for more than 5 months... It is about 1,000 eV for each palladium atom, which is very difficult to be attributed to any chemical resource.

 

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

"Reproducible, Anomalous Emissions from Palladium Deuteride/Hydride," R.K. Rout, A. Shyam, M. Srinivasan, and A.B. Garg, V. K. Shrikhande, Fusion Technology, Vol. 30, November 1996, pp. 273-280.

Each and every palladium sample loaded/reloaded either with hydrogen or deuterium was observed to fog radiographic films kept in its close proximity in air. Strangely, even with ten layers of black paper (thickness ~63 mg/cm2) as a filter between film and sample, fogging was observed. On the other hand, no fogging could be observed even when thin beryllium foil (~ 1.4 mg/cm2), three layers of transparent polyester foils (~10 mg/cm2), or thin aluminized polycarbonate (0.3 mg/cm2) were employed as filters. Several experiments have been performed to identify the phenomenon responsible for fogging. These experiments appear to rule out any of the known mechanisms, suggesting a new, strange, and unknown phenomena.

 

Philips Research Laboratories (The Netherlands)

"Reduced radioactivity of tritium in small titanium particles," Otto Reifenschweiler, Physics Letters A, 184 (1994), pp. 149-153.

By heating a TiT0.0035 preparation consisting of extremely small monocrystalline particles (f ~15 nm ) a decrease of the radioactivity by 40% was observed. In further experiments the concentration of tritium in such preparations was varied (TiTx experiments) showing that the radioactivity of the tritium increased less than proportionally to its concentration. Careful analysis of the experiments seems to rule out the possibility of trivial errors. A provisional hypothetical explanation is formulated. Our experiments may point to a connection with cold DD-fusion.

 

First Gate Energies, Mountain View, CA

"Predictable and Reproducible Heat," Roger Stringham, John Chandler, Russ George, Tom Passell, and Richard Raymond, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 361-365.

The application of transient cavitation bubbles, TCBs, in conjunction with metal foils has proved to be a good scientific probe or tool for the predictable measurements of excess heat Q(x) and heat-after Q(a) at steady state temperatures. The TCB jet produces a high density coherent flux of D+ that is injected into the foil lattice with a flux density of about 1024 D+/cm2 in a few pico seconds and at 40 KHz billions of TCBs are formed on the lattice each second. The data is measured at 5 min. intervals over a period of 24 hours in a static device with some 43 sonication runs and an equal number of calibration runs. A Joule heater is included in the piezo-driven reactor to calibrate all runs. It was found from earlier unpublished work that a number of foils will produce both Q(x) and Q(a) in D20. The Q(a) is different in a mixture of light and heavy water. Q(a) is divided into two distinct processes; Q(al) involving just deuterons and the larger Q(a2) involving both deuterons and protons. The knowledge gained from 43 experiments reported on in this paper were completed in the period of Feb. to Apr. of 1998. The energy values for Q(x) and Q(a') outputs vary from 40 KJ to mega Joules with rates that vary from 1 to 15 watts depending on the conditions. The one parameter that is not predictable at this point is the duration of Q(a)

 

JET Energy Technology, Inc. (Wellesley, MA) andMassachusetts Institute of Technology

"Optimal Operating Point Characteristics of Nickel light Water Experiments," Mitchell R. Swartz, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 371-377.

Nickel light-water electrochemically loaded systems with a variety of cathodes have been investigated using low-noise multiring calorimetry. Plots of excess heat, or power gain, as a function of input electric power drive indicate a narrow locus of optimal system operating points. At the center of the optimal operating point, the peak power ratio or power gain may be at a relative maximum. Driving with electrical input power beyond this operating point yields a typical falloff of the observed power ratio for increasing input power or current levels toward a power gain ratio of 1 and less. This optimal operating point behavior to increasing input electrical power drive may be general behavior for both palladium-heavy water and nickel-light water systems including the production of ash and enthalpy.

 

National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNF) and CISE and ORIM (Italy)

"Preliminary results with 'Cincinnati Group Cell' on Thorium 'Transmutation' Under 50 Hz AC Excitation," F. Celani, M. Achilli, A. Battaglia, C. Cattaneo, C. Buzzanca, P.G. Sona, A. Mancini, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 56-67.

We give the procedure and the results of experiments performed with a standard "Cincinnati Group Cell," aimed to observe possible "transmutation" of Th in other elements via an AC electrolytic process. Three techniques have been used to avoid bias due to spurious effects: a-radiometry, ICP/MS and ICP/optical, looking at difference between initial and final solution and between blank (no Th) and "black (with Th) processed solutions. We found a deficit of Th after processing and new elements produced. The results are still not conclusive on transmutation and we discuss arguments in favor and against the transmutation hypothesis. We clarify the critical points of the measurement techniques, adding some suggestions to improve the reliability of results in future measurements.

•Dr. Edmund Storms (Los Alamos National Laboratory), "Review of Experimental Observations About the Cold Fusion Effect," Fusion Technology, 1991, Vol.20, December, 1991, pp.433-477.

• Dr. M. Srinivasan (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, India), "Nuclear Fusion in an Atomic Lattice: Update on the International Status of Cold Fusion Research," Current Science, 25 April 1991.

• "A Review of the Investigations of the Fleischmann-Pons Phenomena," John O'M. Bockris, Guang H. Lin, and Nigle J.C. Packham, Fusion Technology, Vol. 18, August 1990, pp. 11-31.

BARC Studies in Cold Fusion (April-September 1989), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, BARC - 1500, December, 1989, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan; also in Fusion Technology, Vol. 18, August 1990, pp. 32-94.

First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion (March 28-31, 1990): Conference Proceedings, by the National Cold Fusion Institute, Salt Lake City.

Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings 228, 1991, Steven E. Jones, Franco Scaramuzzi, and David Worledge (editors), Proceedings of an International Progress Review on Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, October 22-24, 1990. (approx. 1000 pages)

Investigation of Cold Fusion Phenomena in Deuterated Metals (four volumes), by the National Cold Fusion Institute (Salt Lake City), June 1991, now available from NTIS.

The Science of Cold Fusion: Proceedings of the II Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, June 29-July 4, 1991, Como, Italy, published by the Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 1991, edited by T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata (528 pages).

Frontiers of Cold Fusion, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cold Fusion (Nagoya, Japan 21-25 October, 1992), edited by Dr. Hideo Ikegami, National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan.

Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion (December 6-9, 1993, Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii), published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the conference was sponsored by EPRI and the Office of Naval Research. Four volumes of the proceedings edited by Thomas O. Passell (EPRI). A large selection of papers from the Proceedings were peer-reviewed and published in a dedicated issue of Fusion Technology, December 1994, Volume 26, No.4T, part 2, 535 pages.

Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-5), April 9-13, 1995, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 640 pages.

Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-6), October 13-18, 1996,Toya, Japan, 709 pages.

Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7), April 19-24, 1998, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Published by ENECO, Salt Lake City, 512 pages.



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