Thermodynamic Fluctuation: Primal, Ubiquitous, Viable Infinite Energy - Digital Download


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by Norman K. Borsuk

This 6-page paper was published in Issue 143 (2019).

From the Abstract: All thermodynamic quantities fluctuate. Understood since Gibbs in the 19th century, thermodynamic fluctuations are flickering microscopic exceptions to the first and second laws of thermodynamics: For brief moments, energy is not conserved and entropy spontaneously decreases. This paper revisits and deepens my original research, published in Infinite Energy in 2012 (Issues 102 and 103), where I found that the second law of thermodynamics is not strictly valid at the macroscale for simple electrochemical cells using aqueous electrolytes...

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