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infinite energy

Infinite Energy Device Update
Published in IE Volume 4, Issue #22
Conducted by Ed Wall and Gene Mallove November 1998
At our New Energy Research Laboratory (NERL) work has proceeded on testing the Kinetic Furnace cavitation reactor (see cover story, IE No. 19). Results continue to be disappointing in Bow, NH–nominally measured COP in the range 1.0 to 1.15, inadequate to call the performance here definitively over-unity. Work is proceeding to alter the rotation speed of the cavitation rotor, first only slightly by several tens of rpm from the baseline 3,450, by altering the line voltage with transformers.

Figure 1. The aluminum fillet that gives much better heat transfer from the immersion heater than the tubular hot finger heater. (Shown inserted into dewar reactor in other figures.)
Interesting trends are beginning to be observed. Later NERL plans to achieve more drastic fractional changes in rotor speed by replacing the single-phase electric motor with a three-phase frequency-controlled motor.

We regret to report the very sad news that Eugene Perkins, one of the co-inventors of the Kinetic Furnace, died suddenly in mid-September from a vascular-related problem. He will be missed deeply, both as an outstanding, creative human being and as a key participant in this project. Ralph Pope, his friend and co-inventor, has assured us that he is committed to seeing the Kinetic Furnace achieve the consistent results that we all hope for, which will lead to commercialization in the water heating market.

Figure 2. This is the new reactor vessel— a modified large stainless steel dewar. It is pressure tight enough for testing.
Very big news on the testing front has occurred outside NERL. Dr. Les Case of Fusion Power, Inc. in New Hampshire (see IE No. 19) has had one catalytic fusion cell sustain for two months (and continuing!) a temperature elevation with deuterium gas that is 35 °C above the baseline reached with ordinary hydrogen. Operating temperature is holding steady at 215 °C. Case has fashioned a much larger unit in a stainless steel dewar cell that he believes will reach the desired goal of self-sustainment soon. It can contain as much as a kilogram of activated palladium-carbon catalyst.

Catalytic fusion by Dr. Case has prompted serious involvement by SRI International, after Russ George (now of Saturna Technologies, Inc.) replicated the Case process in a cell that he fashioned at SRI International. He measured over 10 ppm helium-4 in an active cell, which built up over time from virtually zero background He-4. The blank control cell containing ordinary hydrogen apparently showed no helium-4 build up and no temperature elevation.

Please note the thermal analysis report in this issue (p. 50) by Don Slack of Aqua Environment, Inc. This suggests that the high temperature elevations being seen in Case cell experiments cannot be explained by thermal heat transfer differences between deuterium gas and ordinary hydrogen.

Figure 3. The new reactor vessel covered with fiberglass insulation. When the vessel is at working temperature, the outside gets hot and needs additional insulation.
Russ George’s first attempt to run a Case cell resulted in a failure at SRI. Colleague Akira Kawasaki reports that the cell "was isotropically configured like EarthTech's cell" that failed to show evidence of excess heat. George replicated the experiment with a catalyst configuration closer to the Case cell’s geometry, i.e. a non-isotropic cell. This is the configuration that ultimately worked. Further replication efforts, using Russ George’s cells, are now underway at SRI International and soon at Pacific Northwest Laboratories–a DoE lab that will perform replication studies to measure helium, under contract to Saturna Technologies, Inc. as well as at NERL.

The NERL/Case experiment set-up that we began in late October is as follows: A heater pad is at the bottom of a large Dewar. The cell sits on the heater. The goal is to calibrate the Dewar when the Case cell empty, to have a reference allowing us to make calorimetric determinations. This provides a means of determining the energy output of the catalyst/protium cell. We can defeat the mundane heat conduction/thermometry explanation for the higher temperature of the catalyst/deuterium cell by having a thermocouple in the space in the Dewar alongside the cell to run a comparison between the temperature vs. power curves for the two isotopes of hydrogen. If the airspace in the Dewar is considerably warmer for the deuterium, my conclusion would be that more heat is being generated, because the conduction medium (air) for the thermocouples is identical in both situations. We are monitoring temperature near the outside of the Dewar at two points to deflect the possibility that heat transfer from it to the environment is strongly affected by the surrounding air temperature changes.

Ohmori-Mizuno cells (see IE No. 20) continue to provoke interesting testing results elsewhere. One negative report on such a "plasma-electrolysis" cell comes from David Marett, a colleague of Dr. Paulo Correa.. Marett presented his paper at our Cold Fusion and New Energy Symposium on October 11. We reproduce his report in full in this issue (pages 20-21). When shown this report, Dr. Mizuno took exception to it, stating that it was not a faithful replication. Here is what Dr. Mizuno wrote to us concerning a huge number of experiments they have undertaken–over 50!:

Summary of Recent Ohmori Arc Discharge Experiments
Tadahiko Mizuno
Division of Quantum Energy Engineering,
Research group of Nuclear System Engineering,
Laboratory of Nuclear Material System,
Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University

Larger excess heat generation has been observed with the tungsten/light water system during arc discharge electrolysis. The arc discharge begins when electrolyte temperature reaches 75 ~ 80 degrees C. A few minutes after the discharge begins, the fluid begins rapid boiling. Excess heat measurements commence when the arc forms and continues for 30 minutes.

A variety of electrolytes have been tested including solutions of 0.25 ~ 0.5M Na2SO4, K2SO4, K2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3, and 0.1M BaOH. Electrolysis voltage is set at 160V with a constant voltage power supply. Input is 75 ~ 120 watts.

With 120 watts, excess heat as high as 122 W (202%) has been observed. The lowest excess heat percent observed over the course of a 30-minute run was 138%. During this measurement period, excess heat did not decline. No such trend was observed, so it is assumed that heat generation would continue for a long time at a steady state. Three representative test results are shown below.

The following formula is used to determine excess enthalpy:

Excess heat (H) = Wvap + Wsol + Wcell + Wwall- Win

Where: Wvap: the amount of heat needed to vaporize the water; determined by measuring the mass electrolyte before and after the experiment; Wsol: heat required to raise the electrolyte solution in the cell to boiling, determined from the mass and specific heat of the electrolyte; Wcell: heat required to raise the container temperature to 100 degrees C, the boiling temperature of electrolyte. This is based on the specific heat of the quartz glass container (0.3 calories/gram) times the mass of the container. [Editor's note: apparently the container weighs 3.5 kg.]; Wwall: heat losses over 30 minutes from the electrolysis cell wall to the outside; determined by observing the cooling curves starting at various temperatures, taking a minimum value from the curve; Wout: total output heat; Win: electrolysis electric power consumption; current and voltage are continuously monitored and recorded, power is determined from these instantaneous values.

Experiment 1:
0.5M K2CO3 - H2O 100 cc, average electric input = 0.48 amps
Wwall = 104 KJ – Wvap = 112.8 KJ –Wsol = 17.8 KJ – Wcell = 4.4 KJ –Wout = 239 KJ –Win = 138 KJ
Wout/Win = 1.73

[Editor's note: there was an arithmetic error in the original.]

Experiment 2:
0.25M Rb2CO3 - H2O 100 cc, average electric input = 0.59 amps
Wwall = 104 KJ – Wvap = 218 KJ – Wsol = 17.8 KJ – Wcell = 4.4 KJ – Wout = 344.2 KJ – Win = 170 KJ
Wout/Win = 2.02

Experiment 3:
0.5M K2CO3 - H2O 100 cc, average electric input = 0.54 amps
Wwall = 104 KJ – Wvap = 159 K J– Wsol = 17.8 K J– Wcell = 4.4 KJ – Wout = 285.2 KJ – Win = 155 KJ
Wout/Win = 1.84

Similar results were obtained in more than 50 other runs.
Regarding the paper by David Marett you sent: I have difficulty judging this because the measurement techniques are not described in detail, but let me speculate about some potential problems:

1. There are a number of critical differences in materials and conditions. First of all, electrolysis temperature is too low. Cathode materials are different (Al versus W). The solution and geometry (size of container, shape, positioning of electrodes) and other factors are different. In particular, we have used a variety of electrodes; however, as of this time we have only observed continuous excess heat when using tungsten electrodes.

2. One cannot make sweeping generalizations, but it appears these factors prevent excess heat.

3. In Marett's experiment, during the first phase of electrolysis apparent 142% excess heat is observed. This is ascribed to increased insulation caused by bubbles in the cell. I have doubts about this hypothesis.

4. According to the paper, the cell is calibrated with heater input. However, during electrolysis heat is carried off by the evolving hydrogen gas, so I have doubts about the validity of this calibration method.

Based on the differences listed above, in my judgment Marett is not measuring under the same conditions we do. I would not expect to see excess heat evolution in his experiment. If he could contact me directly I would be happy to discuss the experiment in greater detail.

Further adding to the mix of results, we received a highly positive paper from Dr. Phyllip Kanarev in Russia, in which he runs the electrolyte continuously through an active cell that appears to be like Ohmori-Mizuno, but which uses a cathode of molybdenum and an anode of titanium. He gets consistent excess power results (see report, translated by Dr. Peter Gluck on page 31. COP's of 1.42 and 1.82 were measured. The report is endorsed by a committee of the faculty of Kuban State University.

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